> United Kingdom
|Established|| January 01, 0927|
|Disbanded|| Still Active |
|Last Modified||RBH October 23, 2021 10:19pm|
Part of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
England is one of several countries of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. It sits south of Scotland and east of Wales. England is comprised of 50 boroughs (3 of which are classified as Royal Boroughs) and 36 counties. The capital city of London is further divided into 29 boroughs. There are 24 cities, 12 of which have boroughs of their own. Also, there are 10 administrative districts. Apart from the separate administrative divisions, England is also governed by the Home Office under the jursidiction of the Home Secretary, a member of the British Cabinet under the leadership of the Prime Minister.
The first-known inhabitants of England were small bands of hunters, but Stone Age immigrants arrived around 4000 BC. They were followed by the Bronze Age Celts from Central Europe who began arriving in 800 BC, bringing the Gaelic and Brythonic languages. The Romans invaded in AD43 and quickly took most of England. The Scottish and Welsh tribes were more of a problem, resulting in the building of Hadrian's Wall across northern England. The Romans lost interest around AD410 as their empire declined. Tribes of heathen Angles, Jutes and Saxons began to move into the vacuum, absorbing the Celts, and local fiefdoms developed. By the 7th century, these fiefdoms had grown into a series of Anglo-Saxon kingdoms which had come to collectively think of themselves as English. By the mid-9th century, Vikings had invaded northern Scotland, Cumbria and Lancashire and the Danes were making inroads into eastern England.
William of Normandy, later the Conquerer, arrived on the south coast in 1066 with a force of 12,000 men. After victory at the Battle of Hastings, he replaced English aristocrats with French-speaking Normans. The Normans built impressive castles, imposed a feudal system, administered a census and, once again, began to assimilate with the Saxons. The next centuries saw a series of royal tiffs, political intrigues, plague, unrest and revolt. Cromwell's parliamentary rebellion and later the reign of Henry VIII ushered in growth and development that would become modern England.
Monarchy of England [Link]