Arab Republic of Egypt |
Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
A former British colony until it gained its independence in 1922, Egypt is located in Northern Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya, Gaza Strip and the Red Sea north of Sudan. It includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula. An overwhelming majority of its citizens, about 99%, are ethnically Eastern Hamitic. Smaller communities of Greek, Nubian, Armenian and other European ethnicities exist in Egypt. The people are largely multi-lingual speaking Egyptian, English and French.
With its capital in Cairo, Egypt is comprised of 26 states or governorates. In Egypt they are called muhafazah: Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar, Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah, Al Isma'iliyah, Al Jizah, Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah, Al Qalyubiyah, Al Wadi al Jadid, Ash Sharqiyah, As Suways, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id, Dumyat, Janub Sina', Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina', Suhaj.
As a republic, Egypt is led by the President who, nominated by the parliament and elected by popular referendum, is Head of State. Governance is by the Prime Minister and a cabinet appointed by the President. Legislation is the jurisdiction of the bicameral Parliament, consisting of the People's Assembly or Majlis al-Sha'b and the Advisory Council or Majlis al-Shura.