Home About Chat Users Issues Party Candidates Polling Firms Media News Polls Calendar Key Races United States President Senate House Governors International

New User Account
"A comprehensive, collaborative elections resource." 
Email: Password:

  Marshall, George C.
NameGeorge C. Marshall
, Pennsylvania , United States
Born December 31, 1880
DiedOctober 16, 1959 (78 years)
Contributor411 Name Removed
Last ModifedE Pluribus Unum
May 25, 2023 09:39pm
Tags Army - Episcopalian -
InfoGeorge Catlett Marshall, an American military leader and statesman, was born in Uniontown, Pennsylvania. Marshall was born into a middle-class family. Physically awkward and considered slow, Marshall developed traits of shyness and reserve, a desire to excel as a means of proving his worth to critics, and an insistence on avoiding the appearance of failure or flaw.

After graduating from the Virginia Military Institute in 1901, he entered the U.S. Army, where he was to have a long and distinguished career. Until World War I, he was posted to various positions in the US and the Philippines, and was trained in modern warfare. During the War he had roles as a planner of both training and operations. Between WWI and WWII, he was a key planner and writer in the War Department, spent three years in China, and taught at the Army War College.

He went to France in the summer of 1917 as the director of training and planning for the 1st Infantry Division. In mid-1918, he was promoted to American Expeditionary Forces headquarters, where he was a key planner of American operations. He was instrumental in the design and coordination of the Meuse-Argonne offensive, which forced Germany to sue for peace.

In 1919 he became an aide-de-camp to General John J. Pershing. Between 1920 and 1924, while Pershing was Army Chief of Staff, Marshall worked in a number of positions in the US Army, focusing on training and teaching modern, mechanised warfare.

He was promoted to Brigadier General in October 1936. In 1939 he was selected by Franklin D. Roosevelt to be Army Chief of Staff, a position he held until 1945. Marshall was instrumental in getting the U.S. Army and Army Air Corps reorganized and ready for war. Marshall wrote the document that would become the central strategy for all Allied operations in Europe, selected Dwight Eisenhower as Supreme Commander in Europe, and designed Operation Overlord, the invasion of Normandy. Throughout the remainder of the World War II, Marshall coordinated all Allied operations in Europe and the Pacific. He was characterized as the organizer of Allied victory by Winston Churchill. Time Magazine named Marshall Man of the Year in 1944. He was sent to China to negotiate a truce and build a coalition government between the Nationalists and Communists fighting the Chinese Civil War. His efforts failed and he was recalled in January 1947.

Marshall 'retired' in November 1945 and was named Secretary of State in 1947. As such, on June 5, 1947 at a speech at Harvard University, he outlined the U.S. government's preparedness to contribute to European recovery. The European Recovery Plan, which became known as the Marshall Plan, helped Europe quickly rebuild and earned Marshall the honor of being named TIME's Man of the Year in 1948 and awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1953. In 1949 he resigned from the State Department and was named president of the American National Red Cross. He was named Secretary of Defense in 1950, but retired from politics for good in 1951 after Senator Joseph McCarthy implied he was a traitor and denounced him for making decisions that "aided the Communist drive for world domination". Marshall died on October 16, 1959.


Title Purchase Contributor

Start Date End Date Type Title Contributor

Date Category Headline Article Contributor

Importance? 10.00000 Average


Congressional Gold Medal Recipient George Catlett Marshall  Discuss
The Marshall Plan - George C. Marshall  Discuss
  10/10/1953 Nobel Peace Prize Won 100.00% (+100.00%)
  07/01/1952 US President - D Primaries Lost 0.00% (-64.55%)
  10/10/1950 Nobel Peace Prize Lost 0.00% (-100.00%)
  09/21/1950 Secretary of Defense Won 83.82% (+67.65%)
  07/01/1948 US President - D Primaries Lost 0.00% (-64.65%)
  01/08/1947 U. S. Secretary of State Won 100.00% (+100.00%)
  08/31/1939 Army Chief of Staff Won 100.00% (+100.00%)