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Hayes, Rutherford B.
|Name||Rutherford B. Hayes|
Sandusky, Ohio , United States
|| October 04, 1822
|| January 17, 1893
|Last Modified||Juan Croniqueur|
May 19, 2013 01:13pm
English - Prohibitionist - Married - Presbyterian - Straight -
|Info||HAYES, Rutherford B(irchard), 19th President of the United States, Governor of Ohio, Civil War major general and member of the U.S. House. Elected in the hotly disputed Centennial election of 1876, Hayes established new standards of dignity and honesty to the Oval Office. |
Born in Delaware, Delaware County, Ohio, 10/4/1822; parents were Rutherford and Sophia (Birchard) Hayes.
Attended the common schools, the Methodist Academy in Norwalk, Ohio, and the Webb Preparatory School in Middletown CT; graduated from Kenyon College, Gambier, Ohio, in 8/1842 and from the Harvard Law School in 1845
Admitted to the bar 5/1845, and commenced practice in Lower Sandusky (now Fremont).
Moved to Cincinnati in 1849 and resumed the practice of law. During the 1850s, Hayes was one of a limited number of attorneys who defended those who assisted runaway slaves in defiance of the Fugitive Slave Law.
City solicitor 1857-1859
Served in the Union Army during the Civil War. Commissioned major of the Twenty-third Regiment, Ohio Volunteer Infantry, 6/27/1861; lieutenant colonel 10/24/1861; colonel 10/24/1862; brigadier general of Volunteers 10/9/1864; brevetted major general of Volunteers 3/3/1865
U.S. Representative (R-OH) 1865-1867. Nominated in mid-1864, Hayes agreed to be a candidate but refused to leave the army to campaign. Easily elected, he took office in 12/1865 and was shocked by the policies of the Johnson administration toward the South. Hayes was re-elected in 1866 but resigned on 7/20/1867 after being nominated for Governor.
Governor (R-OH) 1868-1872, 1876-1877. Hayes defeated popular US Rep. Allen Thurman in 1867 in a tight race for Governor. He was then re-elected in 1871 over Rep. George H. Pendleton. Hayes retired after two terms but was re-nominated in 1875 to run against Democratic Governor William Allen; Hayes won a third close race. Hayes served until 3/2/1877 when he resigned to become US President.
Nominated for US President at the Republican National Convention of 1876. Originally, it appeared that former US House Speaker James G. Blaine would be the nominee. As Blaine's delegate count edged towards the 50% mark in the balloting, reform-minded Republicans evaluated the other contenders and chose Hayes - who was nominated on the 7th ballot.
Hayes was elected US President on 12/6/1876. The popular vote was held on 11/7/1876, at which time New York Governor Samuel J. Tilden placed first. The election was particularly nasty in the South, where the heavily racist, KKK-influenced Democratic political campaign was followed by a coordinated effort to steal federal, state, and local elections through actions by local canvassing boards. The effort was successful in all Southern states except three, where the Reconstruction governments were still in place. In these three states, the official canvassing boards certified Hayes Electors and Republican Governors. The Democratic Party organized its own canvassing boards and certified what they termed the winners of the elections: Tilden Electors and Democratic Governors.
When the Presidential Electors met on 12/6/1876, Hayes was elected by a margin of 185 to 184. However, defeated Democratic Electors in Oregon, Florida, South Carolina, and Louisiana met and cast what they termed electoral votes for Tilden. Congress appointed an Electoral Commission to investigate, and the Commission voted along party lines to give all contested electoral votes to Hayes. The Democrats, who controlled Congress, investigated the election to try to overturn the results, but ended the investigation after discovering that national Democratic leaders had offered a $1,000,000 bribe to official canvassing boards in the South to win the certification of additional Presidential Electors.
President of the United States (R) 1877-1881. Hayes moved quickly to resolve the challenges remaining from the Grant administration. He abandoned the Reconstruction governments in the South, allowing the Democrats to inaugurate candidates who had placed second in the elections. Hayes irritated Republican leaders by making his appointments on the basis of ability rather than blind loyalty; he appointed a Southern Democrat as the new Postmaster General and also appointed some former Liberal Republicans of 1872 to office. His efforts to institute civil service reform was only partially successful, as Republicans in Congress refused to support his efforts.
Hayes believed that a two-party system in the South could only exist if Republicans were strictly honest and worked with moderate Southerners against the corrupt Democratic state governments. His efforts were not successful; halfway through his term, it was apparent that the Democratic use of racism motivated voters there, not honesty or good government.
Hayes was a religious man, but he liked to worship with various denominations. His wife Lucy was a strict Methodist, however. She banned alcoholic beverages from the White House and won the nickname "Lemonade Lucy."
Hayes did not run for re-election, keeping a promise from 1876. He retired to his home in Fremont, Sandusky County, named Spiegel Grove.
In 1885, Hayes travelled by train to attend the funeral of VP Thomas Hendricks.
Died in Fremont, Sandusky County, Ohio, 1/17/1893; interment in Oakwood Cemetery; following the gift of his home to the State of Ohio for the Spiegel Grove State Park, was reinterred there in 1915.
First Appeared on a United States Postage Stamp in 1922.
Vote totals for elections in which was nominated for the Hall of Fame for Great Americans (1900-1965): 1950-0, 1955-0.
||38.00% ( 0.0)
||19.00% ( 0.0)
||43.00% ( 0.0)